IoT devices are ubiquitous and will empower the circulatory system in the future. From a practical point of view, it is important and helpful to understand how different IoT devices interact. IoT allows people and things to connect any time, in any space, with anything and anyone, using any network and service. Although the concept of integrating computers, sensors, and networks to monitor and control devices has been around for decades. The latest integration of key technologies and markets stems from the new reality of the ‘Internet of Things’. IoT’s vision is to bring about a smart world, fully connected and interdependent.
The Internet of Things includes a complex and evolving set of technical, social, and policy considerations for various sets of participants. As IoT devices connect and communicate according to their communication models, from the point of view of ordinary users, these communication models help demonstrate the ability of networked devices to add value to the end-user. By enabling the user to have better access to the IoT device and its data, device value enhances greatly. However, these are the benefits of a network come and trade. Careful consideration is required to pay for the costs incurred for users to connect to the cloud resources when processing architectures, especially in regions where the cost of user connectivity is high. While the end-user benefits from active communication models, it should be mentioned that effective IoT communication models also promote technological innovation and open opportunities for commercial growth.
Communication Models in IoT
The 4 main types of IoT communication models are:
Request & Response Model ↔ Client-Server Architecture:
Here, the client needs to put a request, which gets converted to an encoded format on the route and reaches the server to gather information. The data gathered is not preserved between each unconstrained request. On receiving a request, the server downloads necessary data from the site and gets ready to respond. After preparing, the client receives the data and eventually can see the response.
Example: Sending a spreadsheet to the printer — the spreadsheet program is the client.
Publish subscribe communication model in IoT
The primary source of data in this model is publishers. Brokers manage the data received from publishers without knowing anything about consumers. Consumers pay support to articles tracked by brokers. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the brokers to receive data from publishers and send it to eligible consumers. In general, sellers get information about buyers only, about a specific topic that the publisher does not know.
Example: Public sensors with a massive base of uniform users that will use the data.
Push-pull communication model in IoT
Publishers and consumers are unaware of each other. Publishers issue data and push it online. Consumers, on the other side, pull the data pushed online. Therefore, the line acts as a message bar, where the difference arises from the level of push or data drag on the publisher and consumer sides.
Example: Queues help in decoupling the messaging between the producers and consumers.
Exclusive pair communication model in IoT
Being an IoT bidirectional communication model, this model combines full dual communication between client and server. The connection does not change and remains open until the client submits a request to close the connection. The server has a record of all open communication. It is an entire country communication model, and the server is capable of all open communication.
Example: The WebSocket-based communication API.
Different layers of IoT model: Sensing, Network, Data Processing & Communication Management
Here’s the breakdown of IoT communication technologies:
- Device: These are the sensors to detect and monitor remotely.
- Resources: Resources help in accessing and processing by acting as software components. It also helps in network access.
- Controller Service: This is run on a local app/device to interact with web services, which receives data from the admin/user regarding further instructions from the admin via the web to control the app/device.
- Database: It takes responsibility for saving data generated on the device.
- Web service: This service makes sure to establish a link between IoT devices/apps, website and analytics components.
- Analysis Component: The work of this component is to analyze the data generated by the IoT device and give the user/admin the results in an intuitive way.
- Application: It is an interface/program made available for the user to track system status, process data, and allows the user/admin to control and monitor various aspects of the IoT system.
IoT Applications in Various Domains
Some applications of IoT in real-life includes:
Smartwatches have met the growing demand in the global market. But, how do they work? These smart devices are equipped with sensors and the installed software part that collects data and information about users. This data is then processed in advance to extract important information about the user.
Digital automotive technology focuses on increasing the internal functioning of automobiles. But now, this is growing in improving the information in the car. A connected car is a vehicle that can fulfill its full functionality, care and comfort for passengers using the sensors mounted and an internet connection.
The industrial internet is a new phenomenon in the industrial sector, also known as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). It empowers industrial engineering with sensors, software and data analytics to build intelligent machines. The driving philosophy behind IIoT is that smart devices are more accurate and flexible than people in communicating with data. Also, this data can help companies identify inefficiencies and problems quickly.
IoT use cases in Agriculture
With the world’s growing population, the demand for food increases dramatically. Governments are helping farmers use advanced techniques and research to increase food production. Smart farming is one of the fastest-growing fields in IoT. Farmers use sound data from the database to get better returns on investment. Feeling the soil moisture and nutrients, controlling water use for plant growth, and cutting custom fertilizers are some of the easiest ways to use IoT.
The potential of IoT in the retail sector is enormous. IoT provides an opportunity for retailers to connect with customers to improve store information. Smartphones allow retailers to stay in touch with their customers even when they are not in the store. Working with smartphones and using Beacon technology can help marketers better serve their customers.
IoT in Healthcare
Connected healthcare is still a giant of the Internet of Things wireless communication app. IoT in healthcare aims to empower people to live healthier lives by wearing connected devices. The data collected will help in the personal analysis of a person’s health and provide strategies designed to fight the disease.
It will be possible to innovate technology and increase the economy via effective IoT communication modules, IoT communication patterns, IoT communication standards, etc. As more gadgets become interconnected, they will be able to use data streams to develop new goods. Under the device-to-device communication paradigm, devices can communicate directly without needing an application server. The protocol used is often proprietary. The Internet of Things’ stateless communication style allows devices to connect across several networks.